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Odds ratio

Cases with positive (bad) outcome

a
c

Cases with negative (good) outcome

b
d

Computational notes

The odds ratio (OR), its standard error and 95% confidence interval are calculated according to Altman, 1991.

The odds ratio is given by

Odds ratio

with the standard error of the log odds ratio being

Odds ratio standard error

and 95% confidence interval

Odds ratio confidence interval

Where zeros cause problems with computation of the odds ratio or its standard error, 0.5 is added to all cells (a, b, c, d) (Pagano & Gauvreau, 2000; Deeks & Higgins, 2010).

Literature

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