Odds ratio

Cases with positive (bad) outcome

: a=
: c=

Cases with negative (good) outcome

: b=
: d=

Computational notes

The odds ratio (OR), its standard error and 95% confidence interval are calculated according to Altman, 1991.

The odds ratio is given by

with the standard error of the log odds ratio being

and 95% confidence interval

Where zeros cause problems with computation of the odds ratio or its standard error, 0.5 is added to all cells (a, b, c, d) (Pagano & Gauvreau, 2000; Deeks & Higgins, 2010).


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