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Observed mean


Null hypothesis value


Computational notes

The significance level, or P-value, is calculated using the one sample t test, with the value t calculated as:


or when the hypothesized mean is k and the standard deviation is s:


The P-value is the area of the t distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom, that falls outside ±t (see Values of the t distribution table).


  • Altman DG (1991) Practical statistics for medical research. London: Chapman and Hall.
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