MedCalc  MedCalc divides the operators in the following groups:

• Arithmetic operators: arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.
• Comparison Operators: comparison operators compare two numbers or two strings. The result is a boolean value expressed as a number, either 1 (=TRUE), or 0 (=FALSE).
• Unary operators: operators that act upon a single value to produce a new value.
• Logical operators: logical operators operate on boolean expressions and values.

## Operators in order of precedence

 ^ Exponentiation Arithmetic - Unary minus Unary + Unary plus Unary ! Not Unary * Multiplication Arithmetic / Division Arithmetic + Addition Arithmetic - Subtraction Arithmetic = Equal Comparison <> Not equal Comparison != Not equal Comparison < Less than Comparison > Greater than Comparison <= Less than or equal to Comparison >= Greater than or equal to Comparison && And Logical || Or Logical

## Order of operators

• The order of operations can be changed using parentheses. Operations within parentheses are performed first.
• The exponentiation operator ^ is left-associative. In the expression 2^3^2, 2^3 is evaluated first. 2^3^2 is (2^3)^2 (=64), not 2^(3^2) (=512).
• When arithmetic and comparison operators are combined in one expression, the arithmetic are performed first.
• The not operator ! changes a FALSE value into TRUE (=1), and a TRUE value into FALSE (=0). Zero values or empty strings are evaluated to FALSE.
• !0 results in 1
• !1 results in 0
• !5 results in 0
• !"" results in 1 (an emptry strings is evaluated to FALSE)
• !"MedCalc" results in 0
• MedCalc may drop superfluous unary minus or plus signs (for example -0 is 0, and +3 is 3).

### Examples

• -2^3 returns -8 (the power operator has precendence ocer the uniry minus).
• SQRT(9)=3 returns 1 (TRUE).
• B6<5+3 returns 1 if the contents of B6 is less than 8, otherwise this expression returns 0.
• 5+3*(A1>3) returns 8 if cell A1 contains a value greater than 3 (since A1>3 = TRUE = 1). If A1 contains 3 or a number less than 3, this expression returns 5 (A1>3 = FALSE = 0).