# Statistical features

• Summary statistics, including averages, standard deviation, median, percentiles, etc.
• Tests for Normal distribution: chi-squared test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, D'Agostino-Pearson test
• Outlier detection
• Histogram and cumulative frequency graphs with option of superimposed plot of the Normal distribution
• Normal plot
• Dot plot
• Box-and-whisker plot
• Correlation, rank correlation (Spearman's rho and Kendall's tau), and scatter diagram
• Simple regression and scatter diagram with choice of 5 different equations for approximating curve (including parabola), residuals plot
• Stepwise multiple regression
• Stepwise logistic regression
• One sample t-test, independent samples t-test (incl. correction for unequal variances - Welch test) and paired samples tests
• Rank sum tests: signed rank sum test (one sample), Mann-Whitney test (independent samples), Wilcoxon test (paired samples)
• Variance ratio test (F-test)
• One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Levene's Test for Unequal Variances, and posthoc test according to Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK), Tukey-Kramer or Scheffé
• Two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc multiple comparisons
• Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and post-hoc multiple comparisons
• Repeated measures analysis of variance
• Kruskal-Wallis test and post-hoc multiple comparisons
• Friedman test and post-hoc multiple comparisons
• Frequencies table, crosstabulation analysis, Chi-squared test, Chi-squared test for trend (Cochran-Armitage test)
• Tests on 2x2 tables: Fisher's exact test, McNemar test
• Cochran's Q test and post-hoc multiple comparisons
• Frequencies bar charts
• Kaplan-Meier survival curve, logrank test for comparison of survival curves, hazard ratio, logrank test for trend
• Cox proportional-hazards regression
• Meta-analysis: odds ratio, relative risk, risk difference, continuous measure, proportion, correlation, area under ROC curve; Forest plot
• Reference interval (normal range) (CLSI C28-A3)
• Analysis of Serial measurements with group comparison
• Bland & Altman plot for method comparison (bias plot) - repeatability
• Mountain plot
• Deming regression (method comparison)
• Passing & Bablok regression (method comparison)
• Inter-rater agreement: Kappa and Weighted Kappa
• Intraclass correlation coefficient
• Concordance correlation coefficient
• Cronbach's Alpha
• Responsiveness
• Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analysis, sensitivity and specificity (with 95% confidence interval), likelihood ratios, predictive values. Methods of DeLong et al. (1988) and Hanley & McNeil (1982, 1983).
• Interval likelihood ratios
• Comparison of up to 6 ROC curves (with pairwise comparison of the area under the ROC curves, with 95% confidence interval and P-value)
• Interactive dot diagram for selection of threshold values
• Significance of difference between means, percentages and between correlation coefficients
• 95% Confidence Interval for a rate, comparison of rates
• Different data comparison graphs, lines, bars, error bars (1 SD, 2 SD, 1 SEM, 95% CI, percentile ranges, etc.)
• Multiple box-and-whisker plots
• Notched box-and-whisker plots for pairwise comparison of medians
• Dot and line diagram (ladder plot)
• Quality control chart
• Youden plot
• Forest plot
• Comparison of proportions
• Odds ratio, relative risk, number needed to treat (NNT)
• Sampling: calculation of sample sizes