## ARITHMETIC OPERATORS

^Exponentiation
-Negation
* Multiplication
/ Division
-Subtraction

## RELATIONAL OPERATORS

=Equality
<>Inequality
<Less than
>Greater than
<=Less than or equal to
>=Greater than or equal to

## MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS

ABS(x)Absolute value of x
ACOS(x)Arc cosine of x
ASIN(x)Arc sine of x
ATAN(x)Arc tangent of x
COS(x)Cosine of x
EXP(x)Natural exponential of x
FACT(x)Factorial of x
INT(x)Rounds x down to the closest integer
LN(x)Natural logarithm of x
LOG(x)Logarithm of x (base 10)
MOD(x,d)Returns the remainder of the division of x by d
PI()Returns the value 3.14159265358979
POWER(x,p)x raised to the power p (equals x^p)
RAND(x)Returns a random number 1 and x when x >1, or a random number 0 and < 1 when x 1
RANDNORM(m,s)Returns a random number from a Normal distribution with mean m and standard deviation s
ROUND(x,n)Rounds x to the number of digits n
SIGN(x)Sign value
SIN(x)Returns sine of x
SQRT(x)Returns square root of x
TAN(x)Returns tangent of x
TRUNC(x)Removes the fractional part of x

## STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS

AVEDEV(range)Average of absolute deviations of the data in range
AVERAGE(range)Arithmetic mean of data in range
CHIDIST(chisquared,df)  Returns the one-tailed probability of the Chi-squared distribution
CHIINV(p,df)Returns the inverse of the Chi-squared distribution
COEFVAR(range)Coefficient of variation of the data in range
COUNT(range)Count cells containing numbers
COUNTNEG(range)Counts number of negative values
COUNTPOS(range)Counts number of positive numbers
COUNTS(range)Counts number of non-empty cells
FDIST(F,v1,v2)Returns a one-tailed probability of the F distribution
FINV(p,v1,v2)Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
GEOMEAN(range)Geometric mean of the data in range
MAX(range)Returns highest value in range
MIN(range)Returns the lowest value in range
NORMSDIST(z)Returns the one-tailed probability of standardized Normal distribution
NORMSINV(p)Returns a Standardized Normal deviate
SEM(range)Standard error of the mean
STDEV(range)Standard deviation
SUM(range)Computes the sum of data in range
SUMNEG(range)Sum of negative values
SUMPOS(range)Sum of positive values
TDIST(t,df)Returns a two-tailed probability of the Student t distribution
TINV(p,df)Returns the inverse of the Student t distribution
VAR(range)Computes the variance

## STATISTICAL FUNCTIONS ON VARIABLES

VAVEDEV(variable[,criterion])Returns the average of absolute deviations of a variable
VAVERAGE(variable[,criterion])Returns the average of a variable
VCOEFVAR(variable[,criterion])Returns the coefficient of variation of a variable
VCOUNT(variable[,criterion])Returns the number of numerical data of a variable
VCOUNTNEG(variable[,criterion])Counts the negative observations of a variable
VCOUNTPOS(variable[,criterion])Counts the positive observations of a variable
VGEOMEAN(variable[,criterion])Counts the geometric mean of a variable
VMAX(variable[,criterion])Returns the maximum value of a variable
VMEDIAN(variable[,criterion])Returns the median value of a variable
VMIN(variable[,criterion])Returns the minimum value of a variable
VPERCENTILE(centile,variable[,criterion])Returns a percentile value of a variable
VPERCRANK(value,variable[,criterion])Returns the percentile rank of a value
VPERCRANKR(variable,group)Returns the percentile rank of a value
VSEM(variable[,criterion])Returns the standard error of the mean of a variable
VSTDEV(variable[,criterion])Returns the standard deviation of a variable
VSUM(variable[,criterion])Returns the sum of observations of a variable
VSUMNEG(variable[,criterion])Returns the sum of the negative observations of a variable
VSUMPOS(variable[,criterion])Returns the sum of the positive observations of a variable
VVAR(variable[,criterion])Returns the variance of a variable

## STRING FUNCTIONS

CELL(column,row)Returns the contents of the cell with coordinates column and row as text
CHAR(x)Returns character with code x
CODE(str)Returns code of first character of the string str
CONCAT(str1,str2,...)  Concatenate strings
LEFT(str,n)Returns first n characters of str
LEN(str)Returns length of string str
LOWER(str)Converts to lowercase
MID(str,pos,n)returns middle n characters from str starting at position pos
REPT(str,n)Repeat string str n times
RIGHT(str,n)Returns last n characters of str
STR(x,n)Number to string conversion
UPPER(str)Converts to uppercase
VALUE(str)String to number conversion

## DATE FUNCTIONS

DATE(dnr)Serial date number to string
DATEFRAC(date)Returns a fractional year-number
DATEVALUE(str)String to serial date number
DAY(date)Day of date
DAYNAME(date)Name of the day of date
MONTH(date)Month of date
MONTHNAME(date)Name of the month of date
TIME(tnr)Converts the serial time number tnr to a time string (hh:mm)
TIMEFRAC(time)Returns a fractional time-number
TIMEVALUE(str)Converts a time string (in "hh:mm" format) to a serial time number
TODAY()Today's date
WEEKNUM(date)Week number of date
WEEKDAY(date)Weekday number of date
YEAR(date)Year of date

## LOGICAL FUNCTIONS

AND(cond1,cond2,...)Returns 1 of all arguments are TRUE (or 1)
CATEGORISE(...)Categorise function
IF(condition,x,y)If-then-else function
ISEMPTY(var)Cell-is-empty function
ISNUMBER(var)Cell-is-number function
ISSTRING(var)Cell-is-string function
NOT(x)Reverses the logical value of x
ODD(x)Returns 1 (=TRUE) when x is an odd number
OR(cond1,cond2,...)Returns 1 if at least one of its arguments is TRUE (or 1)

## MISCELLANEOUS FUNCTIONS

CHIGH()Highest column number used in the spreadsheet
COLUMNRefers to the column number
FALSEEquals 0
RHIGH()Highest row number used in the spreadsheet
ROWRefers to the the row number
TRUEEquals 1