## Sample size calculation: Single proportion
## DescriptionCalculates the required sample size for the comparison of a proportion with a given proportion. The sample size takes into account the required significance level and power of the test (see Sampling: Introduction). ## Required input- Type I error - alpha: the probability of making a Type I error (α-level, two-sided), i.e. the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when in fact it is true.
- Type II error - beta: the probability of making a Type II error (β-level), i.e. the probability of accepting the null hypothesis when in fact it is false.
- Proportion (%): the hypothesized proportion (considered to be
*biologically*significantly different from the null hypothesis value), expressed as a percentage. - Null hypothesis value (%): the null hypothesis value (a proportion, expressed as a percentage).
## ExampleIn the example you consider a proportion of at least 70 to be significantly different from the null hypothesis value 50%. For α-level you select 0.05 and for β-level you select 0.20 (power is 80%). After you click the Calculate button the program displays the required sample size, which is 47. A table shows the required sample size for different Type I and Type II Error levels. ## Literature- Machin D, Campbell MJ, Tan SB, Tan SH (2009) Sample size tables for clinical studies. 3
^{rd}ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.
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