The Kruskal-Wallis test (H-test) is an extension of the Wilcoxon test and can be used to test the hypothesis that a number of unpaired samples originate from the same population. In MedCalc, Factor codes are used to break-up the (ordinal) data in one variable into different sample subgroups. If the null-hypothesis, being the hypothesis that the samples originate from the same population, is rejected (P<0.05), then the conclusion is that there is a statistically significant difference between at least two of the subgroups.
The following need to be entered in the dialog box: for Data select the variable containing the data, and for Factor codes the qualitative factor. The qualitative factor may either be character or numeric codes. These are the codes that will be used to break-up the data into several subgroups.
You can click the button to obtain a list of variables. In this list you can select a variable by clicking the variable's name. You obtain the results after you have clicked the OK button.
In this example, it is tested whether different treatment regimens coded A, B and C in the variable Treatment, have an influence on the data in the variable Pain_relief. Pain relief was recorded on an ordinal scale from 0 to 9. Since the null-hypothesis is not rejected (P=0.1995), the conclusion is that there is no statistical significant difference between the different treatments.
For a graphical representation of this test, refer to Multiple comparison graphs.
If the Kruskal-Wallis test is positive (P<0.05) then MedCalc performs a test for pairwise comparison of subgroups according to Conover, 1999.